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Written Expression

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Written Expression

Post by offline on Mon Jan 03 2011, 22:24

This space is about all what concerns Written Expression... contribute now thanks in advance.

Posts : 46
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Re: Written Expression

Post by Mahmoud on Fri Feb 25 2011, 17:47

Ammar Telidji University of Laghouat 2010-2011
Department of English
Second Year Degree
Module : WE

Introductions And Conclusions
The importance of introductions and conclusions:
The introduction and the conclusion are two of the three main parts of an essay. Without an introduction and a conclusion, an essay is just a group of paragraphs. The introduction and the conclusion work together to make the topic and main ideas of the essay clear to the reader.
A-The introduction.
1-What is an introduction?
The first paragraph of an essay is called the introduction. The introduction :

• Is usually five to ten sentences.
• Catches the reader's interest.
• Gives the general topic of the essay.
• Gives background information about the topic.
• States the main point (the thesis statement) of the essay.

The introduction is often organized by giving the most general ideas first and then leading to the most specific idea, which is the thesis statement, like this:
Specific idea (Thesis statement)
2-What an introduction should do?
A combination of courtesy and strategy, the introduction “sells” the essay to the reader, compelling him or her to read the rest of it. For most assignments, it should also acquaint the audience with the subject and purpose of the essay. Specifically, essay writers have four tasks to accomplish within the first paragraph or two. An effective introduction should:
2-1.Provide the context necessary to understand your thesis: When you’re writing for a general audience, your readers don’t know who you are. They may not know your assignment and may not be familiar with the issues or texts you are discussing. Thus, you might need to provide background information. If you are writing about literature, you should include the titles, authors, and publications dates of the text you are analyzing. Similarly, if you’re writing about a historical event, you should name the event, the date, and the key people (or countries, or issues) involved.
2-2. Clearly state the main point of the essay: Your readers should know from the beginning what idea you will be developing throughout the essay. A clear thesis statement is a key component of an effective introduction.
2-3. “Hook” the reader :The introduction should not only get the reader’s attention, but compel him or her to keep reading.
2-4. Set the tone for the essay: Tone refers to the mood or attitude conveyed through language, particularly through word choice and sentence structure. Your tone may be personal and informal, serious and formal, urgent, relaxed, grave, or humorous. In the Frankenstein example, the language is serious and formal, and it fits the serious subject (supporting examples in the essay include discussions of atomic weapons and cloning).

3-Ways to grab your reader’s attention: A good hook contains an element of creativity and an awareness of the reader’s needs. It doesn’t simply announce the subject or thesis, or make generalizations that sound clichéd. Phrases such as one step at a time; no news is good news; have a nice day; when life gives you lemons, make lemonade; and no guts, no glory are so overused they have little or no meaning.
The following seven introductory hook strategies offer specific ways to get into your subject and thesis that arouse a reader’s attention, making your introduction an invitation to read on. These strategies are:
3-1.A Quotation:
Start with a quote from a text, a film, a subject-matter expert, or even a friend or relative if he or she said something relevant to the topic and of interest to your reader.
“All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others,” said Napoleon in George Orwell’s classic novel Animal Farm. Uncle Sam might say something similar: “All people must pay taxes, but some must pay more taxes than others.” Our current federal income tax system treats taxpayers unfairly and requires and monumental budget to administer and maintain. A flat tax, which would treat all taxpayers equally and dramatically reduce tax compliance cost, is the answer.

3-2.A Question:
Open up with a question to get your readers thinking. Of course, the question (and its answer) should be relevant to your thesis.
What’s in a name? Nothing—and everything. It is, after all, just a name, one tiny piece of the puzzle that makes up a person. But when someone has a nickname like “Dumbo,” a name can be the major force in shaping one’s sense of self. That’s how it was for me.

3-3.A Surprising Statement or Fact:
This type of hook provides “shock value” for the reader.
If you don’t believe our current tax law is ridiculously out of control, consider this: Our total tax law consists of 101,295 pages and 7.05 million words. That means our tax law has almost 100 times more pages and ten times as many words and the Bible. Bloated? You bet. But it doesn’t have to be. The government would collect equal or greater tax revenue and save millions of dollars in compliance costs by instituting a flat tax system.

3-4.An Imaginary Situation or Scenario:
Hook your readers with your imagination. You might ask them to place themselves in the scene, or you can let them simply witness it.
You’ve been drifting at sea for days with no food and no water. You have two companions. Suddenly, a half-empty bottle of water floats by. You fight over the bottle, ready to kill the others if you have to for that water. What has happened? What are you—human or animal? It is a question that H.G.Wells raises over and over in The Island of Dr.Moreau. His answer? Like it or not, we’re both.

3-5.An anecdote:
Start your essay by telling a short, interesting story related to your subject.
I’d been getting into a lot of trouble—failing classes, taking things that didn’t belong to me. So the guidance counselor at school suggested that my parents take me to a psychiatrist. “You mean a shrink?” my mother replied, horrified. My father and I had the same reaction. After all, what good would it do to lie on a couch while some “doctor” asked questions and took notes? So I went to my first session angry and skeptical. But after a few weeks, I realized that we had it all wrong. Those shrinks really know what they’re doing. And mine helped me turn my life around.

3-6.How to write interesting background information:
Tell your reader something unusual about your subject.
Incredibly, Frankenstein—one of the most important novels in Western literature—was written by a teenager. When it was published in 1818,Mary Shelley was only 19 years old. Despite her youth, Shelley’s story raises a question that is more important today that ever: What is the creator’s relationship to his or her creation?

3-7.A new twist on a familiar phrase:
Reword or rework an old standard to create a fresh hook.
To eat or not to eat? That is the question millions of Americans struggle with every day as they fight the battle of the bulge. But it seems to be a losing battle. Despite the millions spent on diet pills and diet plans, Americans today are heavier than ever. There are many reasons for this nationwide weight gain, but experts agree that the main cause is lack of exercise. And one of the reasons we don’t get enough exercise is because we spend too much time in front of the TV.
Notice that this introduction is actually two paragraphs. In some essays, the introduction runs three or even paragraphs. The key is to have an introduction that is in proportion with the rest of the essay. If your essay is two pages long, one paragraph is probably sufficient for the introduction. If it goes longer, the body of your essay, where you develop your main points and support them with evidence and examples, will lack the room it needs to completely state your case. But if your essay is ten or twelve pages long, it may take a couple of paragraphs to properly introduce your topic and thesis. You might have a more detailed anecdote, for example, or spend two or three paragraphs describing a scenario that sets up your thesis.

Any of the following will make an introduction weak:
• It doesn't give enough information about the topic or gives too much information about it.
• It talks about too many different topics.
• It does not state a clear thesis

In Short
Introductions serve an important function. They “welcome” your reader into your essay by providing context, stating your thesis, and setting the tone. They should also grab your reader’s interest. Strategies for attention grabbing hooks include starting with a quotation, a question, a surprising statement or fact, an imaginary situation or scenario, an anecdote, interesting background information, or a new twist on a familiar phrase.

B –The conclusion.
1-The importance of a conclusion

The conclusion is the final paragraph of the essay. A good concluding paragraph :
• Summarizes the main points of the essay.
• Restates the thesis fusing different words.
• Makes a final comment about the essay's main idea.
• May emphasize an action that you would like the reader to lake.
 Don't introduce new ideas in a conclusion. A conclusion only restates or gives further commentary on ideas discussed in the essay.

2-What a conclusion should do?
Like the introduction, the conclusion of an essay serves a specific function. Its job is to wrap things up in a way that makes readers feel satisfied with their reading experience. Writers create this sense of satisfaction by:

2-1 Restating the thesis:
Before your reader finishes your essay, remind him or her of what your goals were. What did you want him or her to take away from your essay? Reminding readers of your thesis (without repeating it word for word) will help ensure that they get, and remember, your point.
Introduction: What’s in a name? Nothing—and everything. It is, after all, just a name, one tiny piece of the puzzle that makes up a person. But when someone has a nickname like “Dumbo,” a name can be the major force in shaping one’s sense of self. That’s how it was for me.
Conclusion: I don’t blame my brother for how I turned out, of course. He may have given me the nickname, but I’m the one who let that nickname determine how I felt about myself. I could have worn the name proudly—after all, Disney’s Dumbo is a hero. Instead, I wore it like a dunce cap. I wish I had known then what I know now: You are what you believe yourself to be.

2-2 Offering a New Understanding:
To conclude means to bring to an end. But it also means to arrive at a belief or opinion by reasoning. And that’s what a good conclusion should do: It should both bring the essay to an end and end with a conclusion—the understanding that you have come to by working through your essay. After all, you stated a thesis and then supported it with evidence. That has to add up to something. You should now have a deeper understanding of your subject, and it’s this understanding that you need to convey to your readers in your conclusion. This understanding makes readers feel as if their time was well spent; it is their “reward” for reading your essay.
In the previous example, the writer offers a new understanding of how names can shape people. Readers learn that he had the choice to let the nickname shape him in a positive or negative way. The understanding is his “gift” to his readers, and he shares it in his conclusion.
2-3 Providing a Sense of Closure:
Good conclusions often offer a new understanding, but that new understanding is very closely related to the thesis. The conclusion is not the time to introduce a new topic. Don’t bring up assertions that have not already been supported by the body of your essay. Doing so will not only frustrate your reader, but will probably cause him or
her to lose sight of your thesis.

2-4 The Art of Framing:
One of the most effective ways to provide a sense of closure is to “frame” your essay with a conclusion that refers to the introduction. The introduction and conclusion use the same approach, presented in different terms. The conclusion then serves as a reminder of where the essay began.
In the sample conclusions offered later in this lesson, notice how the “anecdote” conclusion frames the Dumbo essay by repeating the opening question and providing a more sophisticated answer. Similarly, the “call to action” conclusion frames the To eat or not to eat? essay by referring to the essay’s opening lines.

2-5Arousing the Reader’s Emotions:
Good conclusions can also move readers by appealing to their emotions. Because your conclusion restates and extends your thesis by offering a new understanding, and because you want your essay to end with impact, it makes sense to write a memorable ending. One of the best ways to do that is through emotion. The conclusion to the Dumbo essay, for example, touches our emotions by making us think about how we may have let negative beliefs about ourselves dictate who we have become. At the same time, it inspires us by suggesting that we have the power to change ourselves if we have a negative self-image.0

3-Strategies for Conclusions:
0 Just as there are many strategies for creating an attention-getting introduction, there are a number of strategies:

3-1 A Quotation:
You may have noticed that three of the introduction strategies we discussed in the previous lesson—quotations, questions, and anecdotes—are also effective for conclusions. Here’s how you might use a quotation to sum up an essay:
In Grand Illusion, the whole idea of nationhood is exposed as an illusion, and the fact that we go to war over an illusion is the film’s greatest irony—and tragedy. It is a tragedy Renoir hopes we can avoid repeating. If “losing an illusion makes you wiser than finding the truth,” as Ludwig Borne wrote, then Renoir has succeeded in making us all more wise.
3-2 A Question:
Here’s how you might use a question to conclude an essay:
“What kind of place is America?” you asked. In short, America is an idea and an experiment. We call the idea “democracy,” and we see what happens when we let people say whatever they want, go wherever they want, and in most cases, do whatever they want. True, the results aren’t always pretty. But it certainly is a beautiful experiment, isn’t it?

3-3 An Anecdote:
Anecdotes add interest and impact to conclusions. Notice how this anecdote frames the essay by repeating the question used in the introduction.
Conclusion: What’s in a name? Enough to make me think long and hard about what to name my son before he was born. I spent months researching names and their meanings and thinking about the nicknames people might come up with. Once we finally settled on a name, I spent many sleepless nights worrying that we’d made the wrong choice and petrified that Samuel James would hate us for giving him that name. But I’ve realized that along the way, Sam will have to learn the same lesson I did. I only hope that I can help make it less painful.

3-4 A Prediction:
You can close your essay with a forecast for a person, place, or thing related to your thesis. Here’s an example from a college application essay:
Thirty years from now, when I’m 48, I will retire and survey my empire. I will have created and led a hugely successful Fortune 500 company; I will have used my considerable wealth to set up a literacy foundation and a home for orphans in my native Cuba. Deeply satisfied with my accomplishments, I will then establish scholarships for disadvantaged students to Briarwood College, for I will recall with great gratitude that my education there made all of my accomplishments possible.

3-5 A Solution or Recommendation:
Conclude with a solution to the problem you’ve discussed, or a recommendation for future action. This strategy will serve you well later, when you’re asked to write business memos or reports.
3-6 A Call to Action
Finally, you can end your essay by suggesting a specific action that your readers should take. As with the solution or recommendation strategy, this one is also used often in business writing. Here’s an example of a conclusion for the essay about television and lack of exercise. Notice how it frames the essay by referring to the opening line of the introduction.
Introduction: To eat or not to eat? That is the question millions of Americans struggle with every day as they fight the battle of the bulge. But it seems to be a losing battle. Despite the millions spent on diet pills and diet plans, Americans today are heavier than ever. There are many reasons for this nationwide weight gain, but experts agree that the main cause is lack of exercise. And one of the reasons we don’t get enough exercise is because we spend too much time in front of the TV.
Conclusion: Television entertains and informs us. But it also fattens us. If you are one of the millions of overweight Americans, take a simple step toward a healthier body. Get up and turn off the TV. The question isn’t “To eat or not to eat.” Rather, the question is, what can you do instead of watching TV? Go for a walk. Take a swim. Ride a bike. Get some exercise! You’ll end up with a healthier body—and mind.

In Short
Like introductions, conclusions serve several important functions. They refocus the essay by restating the thesis; they offer a gift to the reader in the form of a new understanding (which is an extension of the thesis); they provide a sense of closure; and they arouse readers’ emotions. Some of the same strategies for introductions also work for conclusions, including quotations, questions, and anecdotes. Other closing techniques include predictions, solutions or recommendations, and calls to action.

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Re: Written Expression

Post by TheWolf on Fri Apr 22 2011, 16:01

U forgot to write the date Beowulf Very Happy

Thank you for info brother bounce

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Re: Written Expression

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